THE BRITANNIC COINAGE OF CONSTANTIUS
Gaul and Londinium Production (294-306)

POST-INVASION COINAGE PRODUCED IN BRITAIN

Roman Tetrarchic coin photoRoman Tetrarchic coin photoRoman Tetrarchic coin photoRoman Tetrarchic coin photo

RIC, VOLUME VI, LONDINIUM
GROUP I, c. 297 to 1 May 305
(Abdication of Diocletian & Maximian Herculius)
and
GROUP II Period I, c. 1 May 305 to 25 July 306
(death of Constantius)

Last updated: 4 July 2017


RIC (Roman Imperial Coinage, Volume VI, Londinium) Augustus and Caesar name forms and common usage:

For Headers in RIC .......................... In RIC Text .......................... By Collectors & Dealers
DIOCLETIAN ..................................... DIOCLETIAN ................................. DIOCLETIAN
MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS ................... HERCULIUS .................................. MAXIMIANUS
GALERIUS MAXIMIAN ..................... GALERIUS ...................................... GALERIUS
CONSTANTIUS ................................. CONSTANTIUS .............................. CONSTANTIUS I
SEVERUS ......................................... SEVERUS ....................................... SEVERUS II
MAXIMINUS ...................................... MAXIMINUS .................................... MAXIMINUS II

Note: Caution should be exercised when attributing the coins of Galerius Maximian & Maximian Herculius due to the similarity of their titulature. Galerius Maximian was both Caesar and Augustus during this time period whereas Maximian Herculius was always only Augustus. Therefor, coins bearing the titulature MAXIMIANVS and NOBIL CAES, NOB CAES, NOBIL C, etc.can only be those of Galerius Maximian. There is a special problem with Galerius as Augustus coins: The titulature is exactly the same as that of Maximian Herculius and frequently the only way to differentiate between the two is by the portraiture on the coin obverse.


This page relates to the re-opening of the London Mint by Constantius, the Intermediate Group coinage of Bastien and the production of coins in Britain catalogued in RIC, Vol. VI, LONDINIUM up to the death of Constantius on 25 July 306.

Recap: After his restoration of Britain to the Empire, Constantius re-opened the London Mint, now as an official facility with one officina (workshop), which continued to operate until its closure in 325. It seems very likely that much of the early unmarked coinage was produced at the London Mint using British die engravers and other workers, formerly employed by the Carausius - Allectus Mints, now supervised and mixed in with Lugdunese mint workers who accompanied the Constantius invasion force.

Random notes relating to the early coinage produced in Britain

References and Resources

Gallery of representative coins

The coins illustrated on this page (except for those in the Header) are from my own personal collection and were photographed by me, illuminated by natural daylight, at various times using a variety of cameras/lenses. I cropped and uniformally sized the images (300 by 300 pixels) using IrfanView, but they have not been enhanced or manipulated in any other way.

Initial series of coins produced at the London Mint in 297

The initial folles c. 297, again issued in the names of Diocletian & Maximian Herculius and Constantius & Galerius Maximian as Caesar, closely followed the design, size and weight of the unknown Continental Mint "Invasion" coinage except they now bore a LON mint mark in the reverse exergue.


RIC Volume VI, Londinium, Group I, (i), folles, No. 1-5, c. 297, 11.0-9.5 gm, 28/26 mm. Obverses and Reverses in the style of the unknown Continental Mint invasion coinage. Laureate head, right, with bare neck truncation. NOTE: Class I category descriptor is found in RIC VI, Lugdunum, Group I (page 243).

Example coin No.1a - Diocletian:

[Diocletian coin photo] [Diocletian coin photo]
IMP C DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG .................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI
LON
in exergue

9.1 gm.
As depicted in RIC Volume VI, Plate 1.

It is now generally accepted that these LON mint marked, and succeeding unmarked, folles were indeed produced in Britain.


Intermediate Group folles (Bastien) c. 297 that often feature Lugdunum style laureate heads and London style lettering. Sometimes with laureate busts in fine style with elaborate consular cuirasses (Stewartby).

Example coin: Galerius Maximian as Caesar Intermediate Group (Bastien: a) - laureate truncated bare bust with long ribbon tie lying on neck -- London style lettering.

[Galerius coin photo] [Galerius coin photo]
C VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C ........................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

10.1 gm.

Succeeding unmarked Group I folles

The obverse busts are mostly simply curaissed, however, there a few that are draped (rarely with helmets, spears and shields, etc.)


RIC Volume VI, Londinium, Group I, (ii), folles, Class II, (a), No. 6-16, c. 300 onward, 11.0-9.5 gm, 28/26 mm. Laureate bust, right, cuirassed, or cuirassed and draped - small head on a tall neck, reminiscent of some of the Carausius ~ Allectus coinage.

Example coin No. 6b - Maximian Herculius:

[Maximianus coin photo] [Maximianus coin photo]
IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

9.7 gm.


Example coin No. 14a - Constantius as Caesar:

[Constantius coin photo] [Constantius coin photo]
FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

9.2 gm.
Influence of Carausius/Allectus die engravers?


Example coin No. 15 - Galerius Maximian as Caesar:

[Galerius coin photo] [Galerius coin photo]
C VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C ........................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

9.6 gm.
Possible Intermediate coin -- long ribbon tie laying on neck.


RIC Volume VI, Londinium, Group I, (ii), folles, Class II, (b), No. 17-22, c. 300 onward, 10.8-9.0 gm, 27/26 mm. Laureate bust, right, cuirassed, or cuirassed and draped - shorter necks and proportional heads.

Example coin No. 17 - Maximian Herculius:

[Constantius coin photo] [Constantius coin photo]
IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

8.5 gm.


Example coin No. 20 - Constantius as Caesar:

[Constantius coin photo] [Constantius coin photo]
FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

8.8 gm.
Possible intermediate issue -- long ribbon tie laying on neck.


Example coin No. 21 - Galerius Maximian as Caesar:

[Galerius coin photo] [Galerius coin photo]
MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

10.2 gm.
Possible variant - "palmed" cuirass (Stewartby).


Example coin No. 22 - Constantius as Caesar:

[Condtantius coin photo] [Constantius coin photo]
CONSTANTIVS NOB C ................................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

11.9 gm.
Possible variant - elaborate "consular" cuirass (Stewartby).


RIC Volume VI, Londinium, Group I, (iii), folles, Class III, c. 303 onward, No. 23-39 - Large, spread, laureate bust, cuirassed and sometimes draped.

Example coin No. 25 - Maximian Herculius:

[Maximian coin photo] [Maximian coin photo]
IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG ................................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

10.2 gm.
Draped bust.


Example coin No. 28a - Diocletian:

[Diocletian coin photo] [Diocletian coin photo]
IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG ................................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

11.5 gm.
Latest obverse legend style.


Example coin No. 33 - Galerius Maximian as Caesar:

[Galerius coin photo] [Galerius coin photo]
MAXIMIANVS NOBIL C ................................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

10.2 gm.


RIC Volume VI, Londinium, Group II, Period I: until the death of Constantius on 25 July 306 -- Period II: after the death of Constantius until the Introduction of mint marked (PLN) reduced size folles in the summer of 307

Titulature Notes:
Augustus titulature: IMP .......................................................................... AVG
Caesar titulature: NOB C | NOBIL CAES | NOBILISSIMVS CAESAR (etc.)

Constantius as Augustus:
* All coins with Augustus titulature were minted during Period I.

Galerius Maximian as Augustus:
* All coins with the following Augustus titulature were minted during Period I. Note that there is some duplication of earlier Maximianus Herculius titulature here which often causes confusion. There is a special problem with Galerius as Augustus coins: The titulature is exactly the same as that of Maximian Herculius and frequently the only way to differentiate between the two is by the portraiture on the coin obverse. The RIC, Londinium, Group II, header lists the Augusti as Constantius and Galerius Maximian only for Period I with Constantius titulature prefixed with 1 and Galerius Maximian titulature prefixed with 2 as follows:

2a IMP C MAXIMIANVS PIVS FEL AVG
2b IMP C MAXIMIANVS P FEL AVG
2c IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
2d IMP C MAXIMIANVS P AVG
2e IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F IN AVG
2f IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG

Severus II
* All coins with Caesar titulature were minted during Period I.
* All coins with Augustus titulature were minted during Period II.

Maximinus
* All coins with GAL VAL MAXIMINVS or SEVERVS ET MAXIMINVS in the titulature were minted during Period I.
* Coins with other Caesar titulature were also most likely minted during Period I.

Note: only Period I coins, RIC No. 40-65, which were minted prior to the death of Constantius on 25 July 306, are featured here.


Example coin No. 42 - Galerius Maximian as Augustus:

[Galerius coin photo] [Galerius coin photo]
IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG ......................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

9.7 gm.
Identical obverse inscription (2C) to the primary one of Maximian Herculius.


Example coin No. 47 - Constantius as Augustus:

[Constantius coin photo] [Constantius coin photo]
IMP CONSTANTIVS PIVS FEL AVG ....................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

9.1 gm.
Earliest obverse legend style.


Example coin No. 59a - Severus as Caesar:

[Severus coin photo] [Severus coin photo]
SEVERVS NOBILISSIMVS CAES ......................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

10.7 gm.
Earliest obverse legend style.
Draped bust.


Example coin No. 59b - Maximinus as Caesar:

[Maximinus coin photo] [Maximinus coin photo]
MAXIMINVS NOBILISSIMVS NOB C ......................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

10.8 gm.
Earliest obverse legend style.
Draped bust.


Example coin No. 63a - Severus as Caesar:

[Severus coin photo] [Severus coin photo]
SEVERVS NOBILIS C ......................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

11.3 gm.
Fully silvered -- pitted obverse.
Draped bust.
As depicted in RIC Volume VI, Plate 1.


Example coin No. 63b - Maximinus as Caesar:

[Maximinus coin photo] [Maximinus coin photo]
MAXIMINVS NOBILIS C ......................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

10.9 gm.
Draped bust.


Example coin No. 65 - Maximinus as Caesar:

[Maximinus coin photo] [Maximinus coin photo]
MAXIMINVS NOBILI CAES ......................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

8.9 gm.
Draped bust.


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