BRITANNIC COINAGE AND THE TETRACHY
ANNOTATED PHOTO GALLERY

Last updated: 20 January 2018

Notes

1. Folles as cataloged in THE ROMAN IMPERIAL COINAGE (RIC), Volume VI
2. Constantius "Invasion" coinage produced by the unknown Continental mint are included
3. Intermediate (Bastien) issue coins not cataloged in RIC are included but are un-numbered.
4. Coins of Maxentius and "filius Augustorum" coins of Constantine & Maximinus are included
5. For a concise, illustrated, historical survey of this period Go to this page

General Attribution Information

I employ the Imperial name forms used in the headers by Sutherland throughout this web site. The following depiction includes the alternate name forms frequently used by collectors, dealers and some authors of historical texts and reference documents:

DIOCLETIAN ........................ (no other names commonly used)
MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS ...... Maximianus, Herculius
CONSTANTIUS .................... Constantius I, Constantius Chlorus
GALERIUS MAXIMIAN ......... Galerius
SEVERUS ............................. Severus II,
MAXIMINUS .......................... Maximinus II, Maximinus Daia, Daza
CONSTANTINE ..................... Constantine I, Constantinus

Note: Caution should be exercised when attributing folles of Galerius Maximian (Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus) & Maximian Herculius (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus) due to the similarity of their titulature. Galerius Maximian was both Caesar and Augustus during this time period whereas Maximian Herculius was always only Augustus. Therefor coins bearing the titulature MAXIMIANVS plus NOBIL CAES, NOB CAES, NOBIL C, etc., can only be those of Galerius Maximian. There is a special problem with Galerius as Augustus coins: The titulature is mostly exactly the same as that of Maximian Herculius and frequently the only way to differentiate between the two is by the portraiture on the coin obverse.

General coin characteristics

Composition - bronze with a silver wash.

Weight range - unreduced folles: 11.0 to 8.5 gm. reduced folles: 7.9 gm to 3.8 gm .

Coin obverses - typically laureate, right facing, busts.

Reverses - for most issues: depict a representation of the Genius of the Roman People standing, facing left, head surmounted by a modius, naked except for a chlamys over the left shoulder, holding a patera in the right hand and cradling a cornucopia in the left arm. Both the obverse and reverse legends read clockwise around the periphery of the coin. The reverse legend is consistently GENIO POPVLI ROMANI.

Constantius Britannic Invasion Coinage

Constantius established a Mint in Gaul (exact location usually listed as unknown, although some French sources list it as Boulogne), manned by Lugdunese workers, to produce this invasion coinage - unmarked (i.e. without a mint mark) issued in the names of Diocletian & Maximian Herculius as Augusti and Constantius & Galerius Maximian as Caesars.

RIC Volume VI, Lugdunum, No. 14a, Diocletian, Augustus of the East:

[Diocletian coin photo][Diocletian coin photo]
IMP C DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG ............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Coin obverses in this series have laureate, right facing, bare neck, truncated busts with the long ribbon tie laying on the neck.
Inscriptional lettering is somewhat large and refined
There is no mint mark in the reverse exergue.
9.8 gm.


RIC Volume VI, Lugdunum, No. 14b, Maximian Herculius, Augustus of the West:

[Maximian coin photo][Maximian coin photo]
IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG ................................. GENIO POP -- VLI ROMANI

8.9 gm.


RIC Volume VI, Lugdunum, No. 17a, Constantius, Caesar of the West:

[Constantius coin photo][Constantius coin photo]
FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Overall lightly silvered.
10.1gm.


RIC Volume VI, Lugdunum, No. 17b, Galerius Maximian, Caesar of the East:

[Galerius coin photo][Galerius coin photo]
C VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

10.3 gm.

Coinage produced at the London Mint by Constantius

RIC Volume VI, Londinium, No. 1a, Diocletian, Augustus of the East:

[Diocletian coin photo][Diocletian coin photo]
IMP C DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG .................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI
LON
in reverse exergue

Laureate, truncated, bare neck bust.
Laurel wreath long ribbon tie laying on the neck.
LON mint mark in the reverse exergue.
As depicted in RIC Volume VI, Plate 1.
9.8 gm.


RIC Volume VI, Londinium, No. 1b, Maximian Herculius, Augustus of the West:

[Diocletian coin photo][Diocletian coin photo]
IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG .................... GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
LON
in reverse exergue

Laureate, truncated, bare neck bust.
Laurel wreath long ribbon tie laying on the neck.
LON mint mark in the reverse exergue.
Subsequent coinage after this series produced at the London Mint was unmarked (i.e. no LON mint mark) until the issue of reduced size/weight folles after the death of Constantius in 306.
9.6 gm.


Intermediate series coin (Bastien), not in RIC, Galerius, Caesar of the East:

[Galerius coin photo][Galerius coin photo]
C VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C ........................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate with truncated bare neck bust.
London style lettering
These intermediate style folles were issued immediately following the LON marked coins.
Some had laureate bare neck truncated busts, others had laureate cuirassed busts, some with elaborate consular features.
All had the laurel wreath long ribbon tie laying on the neck.
All had London style inscriptional lettering and did not bear the LON mint mark.
10.1 gm.


Intermediate series coin (Bastien), not in RIC, Galerius Maximian, Caesar of the East:

[Galerius coin photo][Galerius coin photo]
MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust with long ribbon tie laying on neck.
London style lettering.
10.0 gm.


Intermediate series coin (Bastien), not in RIC, Constantius, Caesar of the West:

[Galerius coin photo][Galerius coin photo]
FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C ........................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust with long ribbon tie laying on neck.
London style lettering.
9.8 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 6a, Diocletian, Augustus of the East:

[Diocletian coin photo][Diocletian coin photo]
IMP C DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
From here on the laurel ribbon ties were secured behing the head
10.4 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No.6b, Maximian Herculius, Augustus of the West:


IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG ................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
10.1 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 14a, Constantius, Caesar of the West:

[Constantius coin photo][Constantius coin photo]
FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
Small head on a tall neck.
Reminiscent of Carausius/Allectus Mint "long neck" Antoniniani
Maybe the work of former Carausius/Allectus Mint die engravers?
9.8 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 15, Galerius Maximian, Caesar of the East:

[Galerius coin photo][Galerius coin photo]
MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
Cuirass with rudimentary chevron design
10.0 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 17, Maximian Herculius, Augustus of the West:

[Maximian Herculius coin photo][Galerius coin photo]
IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
8.8 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 21, Galerius Maximian, Caesar of the East:

[Galerius coin photo][Galerius coin photo]
MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
Cuirass with chevron design
10.2 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 22, Constantius, Caesar of the West:

[Condtantius coin photo][Constantius coin photo]
CONSTANTIVS NOB C ................................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
Cuirass with wave design
11.9 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 25, Maximian Herculius, Augustus of the West:

[Maximian coin photo][Maximian coin photo]
IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG ................................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Draped, laureate, bust.
10.2 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 28a, Diocletian, Augustus of the East:

[Maximian coin photo][Maximian coin photo]
IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG ................................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
11.5 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 33, Galerius Maximian, Caesar of the East:

[Galerius coin photo][Galerius coin photo]
MAXIMIANVS NOBIL C ......................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
11.9 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 33, Galerius Maximian, Caesar of the East (duplicate):

[Galerius coin photo][Galerius coin photo]
MAXIMIANVS NOBIL C ......................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
10.6 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 37a, Constantius, Caesar of the West:

[Galerius coin photo][Galerius coin photo]
CONSTANTIVS NOB C ......................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
11.7 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 42, Galerius Maximian, Augustus of the East:

[Galerius coin photo][Galerius coin photo]
IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG ......................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
Identical obverse inscription (2C) to the primary one of Maximian Herculius.
9.7 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 46 (variant), Severus, Augustus of the West:


IMP SEVERVS PIVS FEL AVG ........................... GENIO POPV - LI ROMANI

Draped laureate bust.
Obverse legend variation: PIVS FEL instead of PIVS FELIX.
9.4 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 47, Constantius, Augustus of the West:

[Constantius coin photo][Constantius coin photo]
IMP CONSTANTIVS PIVS FEL AVG ....................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Earliest obverse legend style.
Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
9.9 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 59a, Severus, Caesar of the West:

[Severus coin photo][Severus coin photo]
SEVERVS NOBILISSIMVS CAES ......................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Earliest obverse legend style.
Draped, laurate, bust.
10.3 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 59b, Maximinus (Daia), Caesar of the East:

[Maximinus coin photo][Maximinus coin photo]
MAXIMINVS NOBILISSIMVS NOB C ......................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Earliest obverse legend style.
Draped, laureate, bust.
10.8 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 63a, Severus, Caesar of the West:

[Severus coin photo][Severus coin photo]
SEVERVS NOBILIS C ........................................ GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Fully silvered but pitted.
Draped, laureate, bust.
As depicted in RIC Volume VI, Plate 1.
11.3 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 63b, Maximinus (Daia), Caesar of the East:

[Maximinus coin photo][Maximinus coin photo]
MAXIMINVS NOBILIS C .................................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Draped, laureate, bust.
10.4 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 65, Maximinus (Daia), Caesar of the East:

[Maximinus coin photo][Maximinus coin photo]
MAXIMINVS NOBILI CAES ......................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Draped, laureate, bust.
8.8 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 76b, Maximian Herculius (Abdication commemorative):

[Abdication coin photo][Abdication coin photo]
DN MAXIMIANO BEATISSIMO SEN AVG
PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG

Obverse: Laureate bust of Maximian Herculius in Imperial mantle holding mappa in right hand and olive branch in left hand.
Reverse: Personification of Providentia, standing left, and extending hand to personification of Quies, standing right, holding olive branch and leaning on sceptre.
9.8 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 77a, Diocletian (Abdication commemorative):

[Abdication coin photo][Abdication coin photo]
DN DIOCLETIANO FELICISSIMO SEN AVG
PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG

Obverse: Laureate bust of Diocletian in Imperial mantle holding mappa in right hand and olive branch in left hand.
Reverse: Personification of Providentia, standing left, and extending hand to personification of Quies, standing right, holding olive branch and leaning on scepter.
9.6 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 85/90, Maximian Herculius as Augustus emerged from retirement:

[Licinius coin photo][Licinius coin photo]
DN MAXIMIANO PFS AVG ................................... GENIO - POP ROM
PLN
in reverse exergue

The only differention in RIC Volume VI between No. 85 and No.90 is that the personification of Genius on the reverse wears a modius on his head in No. 85 and a towered headdress on No. 90 (his loins are draped on both). I have always found it difficult to discern the difference on worn reverses. I believe Genius is wearing a modius on his head here.
Reduced follis.
Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
Genius with draped loins.
7.9 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 89b, Constantine, Caesar of the West:

[Constantine coin photo][Constantine coin photo]
FL VAL CONSTANTINIVS NOB C ........................... GENIO - POP ROM
PLN
in reverse exergue

Draped, laureate, bust.
Genius with head towered and loins draped.
Issued shortly after the death of Constantius following recognition as Caesar by Galerius.
9.3 gm.
.

Post-Tetrarchic coinage produced at the London Mint by Constantine

RIC VI, Londinium, No. 98, Diocletian, Retired (seniore) Augustus:

[Constantine coin photo][Constantine coin photo]
D N DIOCLETIANO P F S AVG ....................................... QVIES AVGG
PLN
in reverse exergue

Laureate bust in Imperial mantle holding mappa in right hand and olive branch in left hand.
Quies standing, left, holding olive branch and leaning on sceptre.
7.3 gm.
.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 110, Constantius, Posthumous issue:

[Constantine coin photo][Constantine coin photo]
DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO ........................................ MEMORIA FELIX
PLN
in reverse exergue

Cuirassed, laureate, bust.
Lighted and Garlanded altar, Eagle on either side.
Issued by Constantine in memory of his father.
9.3 gm.
.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 120, Constantine as Augustus (post Tetrarchy):

[Constantine coin photo][Constantine coin photo]
IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG ......................... SOLI INVI -- CTO COMITI
T -- F in reverse field
PLN in reverse exergue

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
Sol standing, chlamys on left shoulder and holding globe.
Reduced follis.
4.8 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 153, Constantine as Augustus (post Tetrarchy):

[Constantine coin photo][Constantine coin photo]
CONSTANTINVS PF AVG ......................... SOLI INVICTO COMITI
* in reverse field
PLN in reverse exergue

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
Sol standing, chlamys on left shoulder and holding globe.
Reduced follis.
4.9 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 209b, Maximinus (Daia) as Augustus (post Tetrarchy):

[Constantine coin photo][Constantine coin photo]
IMP MAXIMINVS PF AVG ......................... GENIO - POP ROM
* in reverse field
PLN in reverse exergue

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
Genius with head towered and loins draped.
Reduced follis.
4.4 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 209c, Licinius as Augustus (post Tetrarchy):

[Licinius coin photo][Licinius coin photo]
IMP LICINIVS PF AVG ................................... GENIO - POP ROM
* in reverse field
PLN in reverse exergue

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
Genius with head towered and loins draped.
Reduced follis.
4.6 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 234, Constantine as Augustus (post Tetrarchy):

[Licinius coin photo][Licinius coin photo]
CONSTANTINVS PF AVG ................................... SOLI IN - VIC - TO COMITI
* in reverse field
PLN in reverse exergue

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
Sol standing, chlamys on left shoulder and holding globe.
Reduced follis.
4.8 gm.

Historically associated coins not Cataloged in RIC Vol. VI, Londinium

RIC VI, Ostia, No. 35, Maxentius as Augustus:

[Maxentius coin photo][Maxentius coin photo]
IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG .................................. AETE - RNITAS - AVG N
MOSTT
in reverse exergue

Ostia Mint.
Rev: Castor & Pollux facing each other leaning on staff and holding horse (Dioscuri)
No coins in the name of Maxentius were produced by the London Mint.
7.3 gm.
.


RIC VI, Thessalonica, No. 32a, Maximinus Daia as Filius Augustorum:

[Licinius coin photo][Licinius coin photo]
MAXIMINVS FIL AVGG ................................... GENIO CA - ESARIS
SMTS
in reverse exergue

Coins with this designation were struck in the names of Constantine and Maximinvs Daia after the Conference of Carnuntum.
None were produced at the London Mint by Constantine.
6.1 gm.


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