BRITANNIC COINAGE OF THE TETRACHY
ANNOTATED PHOTO GALLERY

Last updated: 19 February 2018

Notes

General Attribution Information

I employ the Imperial name forms used in the ROMAN IMPERIAL COINAGE (RIC), Volume VI headers by Southerland throughout this gallery. The following depiction includes the alternate name forms frequently used by collectors, dealers and some authors of historical texts and reference documents:

DIOCLETIAN ........................ (no other names commonly used)
MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS ...... Maximianus, Herculius
CONSTANTIUS .................... Constantius I, Constantius Chlorus
GALERIUS MAXIMIAN ......... Galerius
SEVERUS ............................. Severus II,
MAXIMINUS .......................... Maximinus II, Maximinus Daia, Daza
CONSTANTINE ..................... Constantine I, Constantinus

Note: Caution should be exercised when attributing folles of Galerius Maximian (Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus) & Maximian Herculius (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus) due to the similarity of their titulature. Galerius Maximian was both Caesar and Augustus during this time period whereas Maximian Herculius was always only Augustus. Therefor coins bearing the titulature MAXIMIANVS plus NOBIL CAES, NOB CAES, NOBIL C, etc., can only be those of Galerius Maximian. There is a special problem with Galerius as Augustus coins: The titulature is mostly exactly the same as that of Maximian Herculius and frequently the only way to differentiate between the two is by the portraiture on the coin obverse.

General coin characteristics

Composition - bronze with a silver wash.

Weight range - unreduced folles: 11.0 to 8.5 gm. reduced folles: 7.9 gm to 3.8 gm .

Coin obverses - typically laureate, right facing, busts.

Reverses - for most issues: depict a representation of the Genius of the Roman People standing, facing left, head surmounted by a modius, naked except for a chlamys over the left shoulder, holding a patera in the right hand and cradling a cornucopia in the left arm. Both the obverse and reverse legends read clockwise around the periphery of the coin. The reverse legend is consistently GENIO POPVLI ROMANI.

Britannic Invasion Coinage produced in Gaul

Constantius established a Mint in Gaul (exact location usually listed as unknown, although some French sources list it as Boulogne), manned by Lugdunese workers, to produce this invasion coinage - unmarked (i.e. without a mint mark) issued in the names of Diocletian & Maximian Herculius as Augusti and Constantius & Galerius Maximian as Caesars.

RIC Volume VI, Lugdunum, No. 14a, Diocletian, Augustus of the East:

[Diocletian coin photo][Diocletian coin photo]
IMP C DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG ............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Coin obverses in this series have laureate, right facing, bare neck, truncated busts with the long ribbon tie laying on the neck.
Inscriptional lettering is somewhat large and refined
There is no mint mark in the reverse exergue.
9.8 gm.


RIC Volume VI, Lugdunum, No. 14b, Maximian Herculius, Augustus of the West:

[Maximian coin photo][Maximian coin photo]
IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG ................................. GENIO POP -- VLI ROMANI

8.9 gm.


RIC Volume VI, Lugdunum, No. 17a, Constantius, Caesar of the West:

[Constantius coin photo][Constantius coin photo]
FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Overall lightly silvered.
10.1gm.


RIC Volume VI, Lugdunum, No. 17b, Galerius Maximian, Caesar of the East:

[Galerius coin photo][Galerius coin photo]
C VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

10.3 gm.

The London Mint re-opened by Constantius

After his restoration of seccessionist Britain to the Empire, Constantius re-opened the London Mint, now as an official facility with one officina (workshop), that continued to operate, somewhat sporadically, until its closure in 325. It seems very likely that initially the work force consisted of British die engravers and other workers, formerly employed by the Carausius/Allectus Mints, now supervised and mixed in with Lugdunese mint workers who accompanied the Constantius invasion force.

This London Mint continued to produce exclusively reformed folles, first under Constantius and then under Constantine, until its closure in AD 325.

Initial re-opened London Mint coinage

The coin obverses and reverses of the initial production coin series replicate those of the Constantius Invasion coinage except there is now a LON mint mark in the exergue.

RIC Volume VI, Londinium, No. 1a, Diocletian, Augustus of the East
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 1.01.001, c. AD 296, Rarity: R

[Diocletian coin photo][Diocletian coin photo]
IMP C DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG .................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI
LON
in reverse exergue

Laureate, truncated, bare neck bust.
Laurel wreath long ribbon tie laying on the neck.
LON mint mark in the reverse exergue.
All LON mint mark coins are designated Rare by CT.
As depicted in RIC Volume VI, Plate 1.
9.8 gm.


RIC Volume VI, Londinium, No. 1b, Maximian Herculius, Augustus of the West
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 1.01.002, c. AD 296, Rarity: R

[Diocletian coin photo][Diocletian coin photo]
IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG .................... GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
LON
in reverse exergue

Laureate, truncated, bare neck bust.
Laurel wreath long ribbon tie laying on the neck.
LON mint mark in the reverse exergue.
Subsequent coinage after this series produced at the London Mint was unmarked (i.e. no LON mint mark) until the issue of reduced size/weight folles after the death of Constantius in 306.
9.6 gm.


Intermediate series coin (Bastien), not in RIC, Galerius Maximian, Caesar of the East:
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 1.02.004 (2), c. AD 296, Rarity: R

[Galerius coin photo][Galerius coin photo]
C VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C ........................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate with truncated bare neck bust.
London style lettering
These intermediate style folles were issued immediately following the LON marked coins.
Some had laureate bare neck truncated busts, others had laureate cuirassed busts, some with elaborate consular features.
All had the laurel wreath long ribbon tie laying on the neck.
All had London style inscriptional lettering and did not bear the LON mint mark.
10.1 gm.

Subsequent London Mint coinage

The coin obverses follow an almost standard pattern - right facing laureate, cuirassed busts with short wreath ribbon ties secured behind the neck. The reverses depict what is by now the standard representation of the Genius of the Roman People standing, facing left, head surmounted by a modius, naked except for a chlamys over the left shoulder, holding a patera in the right hand and cradling a cornucopia in the left arm. Both the obverse and reverse inscriptional lettering is somewhat thick and compact with the legends reading clockwise around the periphery of the coin. The reverse legend is almost always GENIO POPVLI ROMANI. There is no mint mark in the exergue.

RIC VI, Londinium, No. 6a, Diocletian, Augustus of the East:
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 2.01.003 (9), c. AD 296-303, Rarity: C

[Diocletian coin photo][Diocletian coin photo]
IMP C DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
From here on the laurel ribbon ties were secured behing the head
10.4 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No.6b, Maximian Herculius, Augustus of the West:
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 2.01.007 (5), c. AD 296-303, Rarity: C


IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG ................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
10.1 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 14a, Constantius, Caesar of the West:
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 2.01.010 (3), c. AD 296-303, Rarity: C

[Constantius coin photo][Constantius coin photo]
FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
Small head on a tall neck.
Reminiscent of Carausius/Allectus Mint "long neck" Antoniniani
Maybe the work of former Carausius/Allectus Mint die engravers?
9.8 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 15, Galerius Maximian, Caesar of the East:
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 2.01.015 (7), c. AD 296-303, Rarity: C

[Galerius coin photo][Galerius coin photo]
MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
Cuirass with rudimentary chevron design
10.0 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 15, Galerius Maximian, Caesar of the East:
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 2.01.015 (4), c. AD 296-303, Rarity: C

[Galerius coin photo][Galerius coin photo]
MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust with long ribbon tie laying on neck.
London style lettering.
10.0 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 17, Maximian Herculius, Augustus of the West:
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 2.01.007 (2), c. AD 296-303, Rarity: C

[Maximian Herculius coin photo][Galerius coin photo]
IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
8.8 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 20, Constantius, Caesar of the West
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 2.01.010 (1), c. AD 296-303, Rarity: C

[Galerius coin photo][Galerius coin photo]
FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C ........................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust with long ribbon tie laying on neck.
London style lettering.
9.8 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 21, Galerius Maximian, Caesar of the East:
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 2.01.015 (9), c. AD 296-303, Rarity: C

[Galerius coin photo][Galerius coin photo]
MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
Cuirass with chevron design
10.2 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 22, Constantius, Caesar of the West:
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 2.01.013 (5), c. AD 296-303, Rarity: C

[Condtantius coin photo][Constantius coin photo]
CONSTANTIVS NOB C ................................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
Cuirass with wave design
11.9 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 25, Maximian Herculius, Augustus of the West:
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 3.01.013, c. AD 303-1 May 305, Rarity: S

[Maximian coin photo][Maximian coin photo]
IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG ................................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Draped, laureate, bust.
10.2 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 28a, Diocletian, Augustus of the East:
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 3.01.005, c. AD 303-1 May 305, Rarity: C

[Maximian coin photo][Maximian coin photo]
IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG ................................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
11.5 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 33, Galerius Maximian, Caesar of the East:
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 3.01.031, c. AD 303-1 May 305, Rarity: C

[Galerius coin photo][Galerius coin photo]
MAXIMIANVS NOBIL C ......................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
11.9 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 33, Galerius Maximian, Caesar of the East (duplicate):
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 3.01.031 (2) , c. AD 303-1 May 305, Rarity: C

[Galerius coin photo][Galerius coin photo]
MAXIMIANVS NOBIL C ......................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
10.6 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 37a, Constantius, Caesar of the West:
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 3.01.024 (2) , c. AD 303-1 May 305, Rarity: C

[Galerius coin photo][Galerius coin photo]
CONSTANTIVS NOB C ......................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
11.7 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 42, Galerius Maximian, Augustus of the East:
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 4.03.004, AD 1 May 305 - Spring 307, Rarity: S

[Galerius coin photo][Galerius coin photo]
IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG ......................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
Identical obverse inscription (2C) to the primary one of Maximian Herculius.
9.7 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 46 (variant), Severus, Augustus of the West:
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 4.04.004, 26 July 306 - Spring 307, Rarity: RR


IMP SEVERVS PIVS FEL AVG ........................... GENIO POPV - LI ROMANI

Draped laureate bust.
This variant (PIVS FEL instead of PIVS FELIX) is listed as RR by CT.
9.4 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 47, Constantius, Augustus of the West:
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 4.02.003, 1 May 305 - 26 July 306, Rarity: S

[Constantius coin photo][Constantius coin photo]
IMP CONSTANTIVS PIVS FEL AVG ....................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Earliest obverse legend style.
Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
9.9 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 59a, Severus, Caesar of the West:
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 4.02.016, 1 May 305 - 26 July 306, Rarity: C

[Severus coin photo][Severus coin photo]
SEVERVS NOBILISSIMVS CAES ......................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Earliest obverse legend style.
Draped, laurate, bust.
10.3 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 59b, Maximinus (Daia), Caesar of the East:
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 4.03.024, 1 May 305 - Spring 307, Rarity: S

[Maximinus coin photo][Maximinus coin photo]
MAXIMINVS NOBILISSIMVS NOB C ......................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Earliest obverse legend style.
Draped, laureate, bust.
10.8 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 63a, Severus, Caesar of the West:
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 4.02.019, 1 May 305 - 26 July 306, Rarity: S

[Severus coin photo][Severus coin photo]
SEVERVS NOBILIS C ........................................ GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Fully silvered but pitted.
Draped, laureate, bust.
As depicted in RIC Volume VI, Plate 1.
11.3 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 63b, Maximinus (Daia), Caesar of the East
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 4.03.028, 1 May 305 - Spring 307, Rarity: S

[Maximinus coin photo][Maximinus coin photo]
MAXIMINVS NOBILIS C .................................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Draped, laureate, bust.
10.4 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 65, Maximinus (Daia), Caesar of the East:
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 4.03.031, 1 May 305 - Spring 307, Rarity: S

[Maximinus coin photo][Maximinus coin photo]
MAXIMINVS NOBILI CAES ......................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

Draped, laureate, bust.
8.8 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 76b, Maximian Herculius (Abdication commemorative):
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 4.01.003, c. May 305 - Spring 307, Rarity: R

[Abdication coin photo][Abdication coin photo]
DN MAXIMIANO BEATISSIMO SEN AVG
PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG

Obverse: Laureate bust of Maximian Herculius in Imperial mantle holding mappa in right hand and olive branch in left hand.
Reverse: Personification of Providentia, standing left, and extending hand to personification of Quies, standing right, holding olive branch and leaning on sceptre.
9.8 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 77a, Diocletian (Abdication commemorative):
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 4.01.002, c. May 305 - Spring 307, Rarity: C

[Abdication coin photo][Abdication coin photo]
DN DIOCLETIANO FELICISSIMO SEN AVG
PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG

Obverse: Laureate bust of Diocletian in Imperial mantle holding mappa in right hand and olive branch in left hand.
Reverse: Personification of Providentia, standing left, and extending hand to personification of Quies, standing right, holding olive branch and leaning on scepter.
9.6 gm.

Coinage produced at the London Mint by Constantine

RIC VI, Londinium, No. 85/90, Maximian Herculius as Augustus emerged from retirement:
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 5.04.001, AD 307-310, Rarity: CC

[Licinius coin photo][Licinius coin photo]
DN MAXIMIANO PFS AVG ................................... GENIO - POP ROM
PLN
in reverse exergue

The only differention in RIC Volume VI between No. 85 and No.90 is that the personification of Genius on the reverse wears a modius on his head in No. 85 and a towered headdress on No. 90 (his loins are draped on both). I have always found it difficult to discern the difference on worn reverses. I believe Genius is wearing a modius on his head here.
Reduced follis.
Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
Genius with draped loins.
7.9 gm.


RIC VI, Londinium, No. 89b, Constantine, Caesar of the West:
CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 5.03.004, c. November - December AD 307, Rarity: R

[Constantine coin photo][Constantine coin photo]
FL VAL CONSTANTINIVS NOB C ........................... GENIO - POP ROM
PLN
in reverse exergue

Draped, laureate, bust.
Genius with head towered and loins draped.
Issued shortly after the death of Constantius following recognition as Caesar by Galerius.
9.3 gm.
.


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